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      <ArticleTitle>An insight on Mechanism and Management of Kidney Stones and its Recurrence</ArticleTitle>
      <Abstract>Kidney stones (calculi) comprise minerals concretions which can form in both renal calyces and pelvis and can be free-floating or associated with the renal papillae. It is an emerging urological condition that affects around 12% of the world's population. Globally, the prevalence and recurrence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and there are limited effective treatment options. I manifest a brief general overview and then concentrate on risk factors, pathophysiology, and medical treatment of kidney stones. The major component of most stones is calcium oxalate, and many of them develop on a foundation of calcium phosphate known as Randall's plaques, which are located on the renal papillary surface. The mechanism of stone formation is a complicated process that involves multiple physicochemical phenomena such as supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone ingredients inside tubular cells. Cellular damage is also thought to enhance particle retention on renal papillary surfaces. There is currently no effective treatment or prevention for kidney stone recurrence. Recurrence prevention required behavioural and nutritional interventions, as significantly as pharmaceutical therapies tailored to the kind of stone. There is a great demand for recurrence prevention, which necessitates a deeper knowledge of the processes involved in the development of stones in order to design more effective medications. Open surgical lithotomy has given way to minimally invasive endourological procedures for the treatment of symptomatic kidney stones, resulting in lower patient morbidity, increased stone-free rates, and enhanced quality of life. As a result, furthering our knowledge of the biology of kidney stone development is a research focus for treating urolithiasis with novel medications.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Kidney stones, Recurrence, Mechanism of kidney stones, Treatment, Prevention.</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://isfcppharmaspire.com/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=15104&amp;title=An insight on Mechanism and Management of Kidney Stones and its Recurrence</Abstract>