Join us   Log in  

PHARMASPIRE - Volume 14,Issue 1 ,2022 , January-March 2022

Pages: 41-46
Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Liposomal drug delivery: Recent developments and challenges

Author: Pallavi Sandal, Galal Mohsen Hussein Alsayadi, Abhishek Verma, Yash Choudhary, Balak Das Kurmi

Category: Pharmaceutics


The spherical vesicles known as liposomes may contain one or many phospholipid bilayers. The first liposomes were found in the 1960s. One of the many distinctive drug delivery methods is the liposome, which offers a complex way to transfer active molecules to the site of action. Clinical trials are now testing a variety of formulations. Long-lasting second-generation liposomes are created by altering the vesicle’s lipid composition, size, and charge. Superficial vesicles have given way to liposome growth. Glycolipids and other substances have been used to make liposomes for the modification of outer surfaces through various types of targeting ligands and detecting agents or moiety. Now, the liposomes developed for the different market and it is flooded with cosmetics and, more crucially, medications. Three of the main applications of liposome technology include steric and environmental stabilization of loaded molecules, remote drug loading through pH and ion gradients approach, and simultaneously lipoplexes which is the complexes forms of cationic liposomes with anionic nucleic acids or proteins for the gene delivery or siRNA technology. The scope of liposome research was expanded, allowing for the production of various goods. The present review focuses on the different aspects of liposomal drug delivery concerning types, preparation, pros, and cons.

Keywords: Drug delivery, Liposome, Nanocarriers, Phospholipids, Targeting, Vesicles

DOI: 10.56933/Pharmaspire.2022.14105



1. Akbarzadeh A, Rezaei-Sadabady R, Davaran S, Joo SW, Zarghami N, Hanifehpour Y, et al. Liposome: Classification, preparation, and applications. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013;8:102.
2. Sahoo SK, Labhasetwar V. Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging. Drug Discov Today 2003;8:1112-20.
3. Gabizon A, Goren D, Cohen R, Barenholz Y. Development of liposomal anthracyclines: From basics to clinical applications. J Control Release 1998;53:275-9.
4. Allen TM. Liposomes. Opportunities in drug delivery. Drugs 1997;54 Suppl 4:8-14.
5. Su C, Liu Y, He Y, Gu J. Analytical methods for investigating in vivo fate of nanoliposomes: A review. J Pharm Anal 2018;8:219-25.
6. Fakhravar Z, Ebrahimnejad P, Daraee H, Akbarzadeh A. Nanoliposomes: Synthesis methods and applications in cosmetics. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2016;18:174-81.
7. Medina-Alarcon KP, Voltan AR, Fonseca-Santos B, Moro IJ, de Oliveira Souza F, Chorilli M, et al? Highlights in nanocarriers for the treatment against cervical cancer. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017;80:748-59.
8. Din FU, Aman W, Ullah I, Qureshi OS, Mustapha O, Shafique S, et al. Effective use of nanocarriers as drug delivery systems for the treatment of selected tumors. Int J Nanomed 2017;12:7291-309.
9. Senapati S, Mahanta AK, Kumar S, Maiti P. Controlled drug delivery vehicles for cancer treatment and their performance. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2018;3:7.
10. Gonda A, Zhao N, Shah JV, Calvelli HR, Kantamneni H, Francis NL, et al. Engineering tumor-targeting nanoparticles as vehicles for precision nanomedicine. Med One 2019;4:e190021.
11. Casals E, Gusta MF, Cobaleda-Siles M, Garcia-Sanz A, Puntes VF. Cancer resistance to treatment and antiresistance
tools offered by multimodal multifunctional nanoparticles. Cancer Nanotechnol 2017;8:7.
12. Gergis U, Roboz G, Shore T, Ritchie E, Mayer S, Wissa U, et al. A phase I study of CPX-351 in combination with busulfan and fludarabine conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with refractory acute leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013;19:1040-5.
13. Cortes JE, Goldberg SL, Feldman EJ, Rizzeri DA, Hogge DE, Larson M, et al. Phase II, multicenter, randomized trial of CPX-351 (cytarabine: daunorubicin) liposome injection versus intensive salvage therapy in adults with first relapse AML. Cancer 2015;121:234-42.
14. Lancet JE, Cortes JE, Hogge DE, Tallman MS, Kovacsovics TJ, Damon LE, et al. Phase 2 trial of CPX- 351, a fixed 5:1 molar ratio of cytarabine/daunorubicin, vs cytarabine/daunorubicin in older adults with untreated AML. Blood 2014;123:3239-46.
15. Daraee H, Etemadi A, Kouhi M, Alimirzalu S, Akbarzadeh A. Application of liposomes in medicine and drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016;44:381-91.
16. Simoes S, Filipe A, Faneca H, Mano M, Penacho N, Düzgünes N, et al. Cationic liposomes for gene delivery.b Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2005;2:237 54.
17. Willis M, Forssen E. Ligand-targeted liposomes. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1998;29:249-71.
18. Sawant RR, Torchilin VP. Challenges in development of targeted liposomal therapeutics. AAPS J 2012;14:303-15.
19. Koning GA, Storm G. Targeted drug delivery systems for the intracellular delivery of macromolecular drugs. Drug Discov Today 2003;8:482-3.
20. Metselaar JM, Storm G. Liposomes in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2005;2:465-76.
21. Ding BS, Dziubla T, Shuvaev VV, Muro S, Muzykantov VR. Advanced drug delivery systems that target the vascular endothelium. Mol Interv 2006;6:98-112.
22. Hua S, Wu SY. The use of lipid-based nanocarriers for targeted pain therapies. Front Pharmacol 2013;4:143.
23. Gabizon A, Chisin R, Amselem S, Druckmann S, Cohen R, Goren D, et al. Pharmacokinetic and imaging studies in patients receiving a formulation of liposomeassociated adriamycin. Br J Cancer 1991;64:1125-32.
24. Torchilin VP, Klibanov AL, Huang L, O’Donnell S, Nossiff ND, Khaw BA. Targeted accumulation of polyethylene glycol-coated immunoliposomes in infarcted rabbit myocardium. FASEB J 1992;6:2716-9.
25. Northfelt DW, Martin FJ, Working P, Volberding PA, Sandal, et al.: Liposomal drug delivery developments and challenges
Pharmaspire | Vol. 14 | No. 1 | 2022 46 Russell J, Newman M, et al. Doxorubicin encapsulated in liposomes containing surface-bound polyethylene glycol: Pharmacokinetics, tumor localization, and safety in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Clin Pharmacol 1996;36:55-63.
26. Ishida T, Kirchmeier MJ, Moase EH, Zalipsky S, Allen TM. Targeted delivery and triggered release of liposomal doxorubicin enhances cytotoxicity against human B lymphoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1515:144-58.
27. Gabizon A, Dagan A, Goren D, Barenholz Y, Fuks Z. Liposomes as in vivo carriers of adriamycin: Reduced cardiac uptake and preserved antitumor activity in mice. Cancer Res 1982;42:4734-9.
28. Allen TM. Long-circulating (sterically stabilized) liposomes for targeted drug delivery. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1994;15:215-20.
29. Moghimi SM, Szebeni J. Stealth liposomes and long circulating nanoparticles: Critical issues in pharmacokinetics, opsonization and protein-binding properties. Prog Lipid Res 2003;42:463-78.
30. Ulrich AS. Biophysical aspects of using liposomes as delivery vehicles. Biosci Rep 2002;22:129-50.
31. Hua S. Targeting sites of inflammation: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a target for novel inflammatory therapies. Front Pharmacol 2013;4:127.
32. Bendas G. Immunoliposomes: A promising approach to targeting cancer therapy. BioDrugs 2001;15:215-24.
33. Puri A, Loomis K, Smith B, Lee JH, Yavlovich A, Heldman E, et al. Lipid-based nanoparticles as
pharmaceutical drug carriers: From concepts to clinic. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2009;26:523-80.
34. Maruyama K. PEG-immunoliposome. Biosci Rep 2002;22:251-66.