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[An Official Publication of ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga]


Original Article
Year : 2018   |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 153-157

Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction in older patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus patients at tertiary care hospital

The main of the study was to determine whether several parameters of retinal microvascular abnormality were related to cognitive ability also to estimated cognitive impairment in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A prospective study was carried out for a period of 6 months (October 2017–March 2018) at the Department of Medicine in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India. Data were collected from patient case sheets, laboratory tests reports, and patient interviews into the specially designed data collection form after taking the written consent from the patient diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy. Among 70 study participants, 67.1% were males and 32.9% were females. The mean age of the patients was found to be 66.37 years. The majority of 68.5% were from the urban area. The test of proportion for addiction showed that 34.7% were addicted to alcohol and 25.7% were addicted to smoking. A large number of study population up to 38.6% suffered diabetes from 11 to 15 years and 34.3% had early macular edema due to retinopathy. Surprisingly, the majority of study participants up to 47.1% were found not having a cognitive impairment, 12.9% had a mild cognitive impairment, 21.4% had a moderate cognitive impairment, and 18.6% were found having severe cognitive impairment. The Pearson correlation between duration of diabetes, stage of binocular digital retinal photography, and cognitive impairment was found to be strong (r = 0.760, 0.772) and statistically significant (P < 0.01) at 95% confidence interval. This study has found that the prevalence of retinal microvascular abnormalities was higher in males as compared to their female counterparts. People living in the urban area are more likely to be affected by it than people living in a rural area. There was a strong correlation between duration of diabetes, stage of binocular digital retinal photography, and cognitive impairment; this suggests that the peoples with a history of diabetes and retinal microvascular abnormalities are prone to reduced cognitive ability and cognitive decline. However, further investigation is required to confirm the direction and potential causal nature of the association between retinal microvascular disease and cognitive decline.
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